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知识创造价值  诚信赢得尊重
知识创造价值 诚信赢得尊重
考研英语二 阅读理解练习题 8.7
来源: | 作者:海大源 | 发布时间: 2022-08-07 | 791 次浏览 | 分享到:

Though often viewed as a problem for western states,the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars,says Professor Max Moritz,a specialist in fire ecology and management.

In 2015,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $ 5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect,fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work—such as forest conservation,watershed and cultural resources management,and infrastructure upkeep—that affect the lives of all Americans.

Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it,how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,"he says.“We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, ' Wait a minute,is this OK?' Do we want in-stead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"

Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire,researchers say.

For one thing,conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive.Over the past decade,the focus has been on climate change—how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

While climate is a key element,Moritz says,it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked,and the interactions go both ways,"he says. Failing to recognize that,he notes,leads to“an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be.Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited”.

At the same time,people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity,says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws,policies,and practices that make it as safe as possible,she says.

"We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire,”Balch says,“It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today. "

36.More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they__.

[A]exhausted unprecedented management efforts

[B]consumed a record-high percentage of budget

[C]severely damaged the ecology of western states

[D]caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

37.Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to__.

[A]raise more funds for fire-prone areas

[B] avoid the redirection of federal money

[C]find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

[D] guarantee safer spending of public funds

38.While admitting that climate is a key element,Moritz notes that_

[A] public debates have not settled yet

[B] fire-fighting conditions are improving

[C]other factors should not be overlooked

[D] a shift in the view of fire has taken place

39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to

[A] discover the fundamental makeup of nature

[B] explore the mechanism of the human systems

[C] maximize the role of landscape in human life

[D]understand the interrelations of man and nature

40.Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should(  )

[A] do away with

[B] come to terms with

[C]pay a price for

[D] keep away from


36.B 【解析】根据题干的关键词wildfires和national concern ,以及时间词2015,定位到第二段首句。“In 2015 ,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $ 5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.”句中提到美国林务局首次将年度预算总额的一半用于抗击林火,对比选项可知,原文指的是抗击火灾方面的支出,而非管理支出和基础设施的支出,排除A、D项;B项“consumed a record-high percentage of budget”是对句子中的“first time spent more than...”的同义转述,所以B项正确。C项中提到的西部地区的生态破坏在原文没有提及,排除C项,故选B。

37.D【解析】根据题干的关键词a magnifying glass和 Moritz定位到第四段第二句,目的就是本段最后一句。本句提到“to redirect those funds”,重新引导基金,本段首句也提到a huge problem from...public expenditure.D项的guarantee safer spending,是对这两句的完全概括,确保公共基金的支出更安全。原文第三段提到来自其他机构的公共基金是否被用于火灾易发区的建设,但是没有与“筹募基金”有关的内容,排除A项;原文第四段提及“我们要反过来,将这些资金转向,集中用于该地景的低风险区域吗?”并不是“避免改变联邦资金的用途”,排除B项。另外wildfire-free parts“无野火区域”与原文中的lower-hazard parts“低风险区域”概念不一致,排除C项。因此选D。

38.C【解析】根据题干的关键词climate is a key element 及 Moritz定位到第七段的内容。本句中Moritz提到"should not come at the expense of the equation”,不以平等的代价而来。C项中“不应该忽视其他因素”是对本句的同义转化与概括;A项的public debates来自第六段的the focus但未提及settle的话题,也非本题定位句;B项的conditions是第六段的最后一句conditions that worsen fires ,偷换worsen;D项的a shift in the view of 出现在第五段,时态错误,原文是would require ,选项是has taken place。因此选C。

39.D【解析】根据题干关键词simplified view Moritz定位到第八段第一句“The human sys-tems and the landscapes...are linked , and the interactions go both ways”,人类与环境相互联系,并且相互作用。结合选项,D项的interrelation是原文原词复现, man and nature同义替换原文的human...and landscapes ;原文提到的人与环境的关系是双向的,“发现自然的构成”和“探索人类系统的机制”都只提及了一方,太过片面化,排除A、B项。同样“充分发挥环境在人类生活中的作用”只强调了一方,与原文表述语义不符,排除C项。因此选D。

40.B【解析】根据题干的Professor Balch和 fire , man定位到最后一段的最后一句“ important to understand...human connection with fire”,人与火之间的联系。结合选项,B项意思是“达成协议”,符合原文;A项的do away with“废除”,C项的pay a price for"付出代价”,D项的keep away from“远离”皆不符合原文语义,均排除。因此选B。


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